On-Site School Speech Therapy

AllSALT  Speech-Language Pathologists work within the school context in the following ways: 


  • Small Group sessions for children with receptive and expressive language difficulties, phonological awareness and literacy difficulties.

  • Individual sessions for students with severe speech sound (dyspraxia or phonological) delays

  • Screening student’s speech and language skills is also covered through the day-rate quoted below so that schools can refer students requiring this service and best prioritise their students’ needs.

  • Augmentative and Alternative Communication and visual communication systems for children with Autism Spectrum or students with intellectual disabilities.

  • Team-teaching and collaboration to build upon teachers’ existing skills and to add to their knowledge and use of oral language strategies in the classroom context (McCandlish S., 2004).

  • Parent education sessions (e.g. information and education regarding language learning and reading with children) can be included in your school’s selected service.

  • Free teacher education and training service available for schools on request for those enquiring about Speech and Language Therapy 


Schools we currently service are listed on the "Clients" page.



Paediatric Clinical Services

  • Children who are late to start talking / have early language delay
  • Preschool children who have trouble understanding instructions or talking using sentences
  • Articulation delay / speech sound errors (phonological errors)
  • Children with dyspraxia of speech (inconsistent speech sound errors, 'groping' for sounds)
  • School aged children who have trouble understanding language or expressing themselves clearly
  • Difficulty with literacy skills – reading and spelling
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder (accredited with FaCSHIA)
  • Better Start for Children with Disability (accredited with FaCSHIA)
  • Developmental Delay
  • Stuttering (Lidcombe Program)
  • MULTILIT Reading Program
  • Hearing Impairment


Adult Speech Pathology Services

  • Stroke, Aged Care and Corporate Services available
  • Assist with difficulties understanding or expressing language after stroke (known as aphasia) or acquired brain injury
  • Speech and voice disorders associated with stroke, traumatic brain injury or neurodegenerative disease
  • Voice disorders (assessment and treatment)
  • Feeding and swallowing assessment, management and rehabilitation for adults with (oro-pharyngeal) dysphagia
  • Stuttering (Camperdown Program)
  • Developmental disability
  • AllSALT Speech Pathology facilitates the St. George Area Stroke Group on Tuesdays at Mortdale RSL Club.


Aged Care Facility Services

  • Assessment, management and treatment of swallowing difficulties (after stroke, dementia, respiratory disease)
  • Feedback is provided to General Practitioners, Nursing Staff and resident's families
  • Our speech pathologists are registered with Medicare Australia, Department of Veteran's Affairs and all major private health funds


Glossary Of Terms


Partial or total loss of the ability to articulate ideas or comprehend   spoken or written language, resulting from damage to the brain caused by   injury or disease.


Loss of the voice resulting from disease, injury to the vocal cords,   or various psychological causes.

Articulation Disorder

Characterised by the inability to produce individual speech sounds   clearly and difficulty combining sounds correctly for words.

Asperger Syndrome

Asperger Syndrome, also known as Asperger's Disorder or Autistic   Psychopathy, is a Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) characterized by   severe and sustained impairment in social interaction, development of   restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests, and activities.   These characteristics result in clinically significant impairment in social,   occupational, or other important areas of functioning. In contrast to   Autistic disorder (Autism), there are no clinically significant delays in   language or cognition, self help skills or in adaptive behaviour, other than   social interaction.


Formal (e.g., standardized tests) and informal procedures used to   identify a person's unique needs, strengths, weaknesses, learning style, and   nature and extent of intervention services needed. Assessment may be   interchangeable with "Evaluation," and it is at this clinic.

Associative Play

When children play with each other, sharing the same materials and   activities in an unorganized way. At this level the children may be involved   in play related to the same theme (e.g., playing blocks, playing   "police/firefighter") but not have organized scenarios with a   common goal in their play. Each child purses his/her own unique ideas.   Predominateds between 30-36 months.

Attention Deficit Disorder

ADD/ADHD in the DSM (Diagnostic Statistical Manuel) IV refers to 1)   Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Combined Type, 2) Attention   Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder/Predominately Inattentive Type, or 3)   Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder/Predominately Hyperactive-Impulsive   Type. Overall, behaviours include hyperactivity, impulsivity, and   inattention, depending on the diagnosis. These behaviours must occur to a   degree, which is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level, and   occur in at least two settings over a period of at least 6 months. These behaviours   may interfere with speech/language learning, academic performance and social   activities (e.g., making friends, sustaining friendships. The disorder is   diagnosed before the age of 7, or symptoms were present before this age.   There must also be the presence of related impairment in social, academic, or   occupational functioning. For examples of related behaviours and symptoms of   ADD/ADHD, please click on "Understanding" and then "Other   Impairments and Disorders" at the top of this screen. Scroll down to   ADD/ADHD.


A professional who specializes in the identification, testing,   habilitation and rehabilitation of hearing loss and hearing related disorders   (e.g., central auditory processing disorder). A person who is also   extensively trained in the anatomy and physiology of the audtiory mechanism,   counseling for hearing disorders, and diagnostic testing/fitting of hearing   aids as well as assistive listening devices.

Auditory Perceptual Processing Disorder or Central Auditory

Also referred to as an auditory perceptual problem, central auditory   dysfunction or central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). It can be defined   as difficulty in listening to or comprehending auditory information,   especially under less optimal listening conditions (e.g., background noise).   It is a condition wherein a person does not process speech/language correctly.   They may have difficulties knowing where sound has occurred and identifying   the source of the sound or in distinguishing one sound from another. Children   and adults with CAPD are diverse and have difficulty using auditory   information to communicate and learn. For more information, please click on   "Understanding" and then "Auditory Perceptual Processing   Disorder" at the top of the screen.

Auditory Processing

The auditory system, mechanism, and processes responsible for the   following: sound localization and lateralization, auditory discrimination,   auditory pattern recognition, temporal aspects of audition, and auditory   performance with competing acoustic signals.


Autism is a complex developmental disability that appears during the   first three years of life. The result of a neurological disorder that affects   the functioning of the brain, autism and its associated behaviours have been   estimated to occur in as many as 1 in 500 individuals (Centres for Disease   Control and Prevention 1997). Autism is four times more prevalent in boys   than girls and knows no racial, ethnic, or social boundaries. Family income,   lifestyle, and educational levels do not affect the chance of autism's   occurrence. Per the DSM IV, autism includes delays and/or abnormal functioning   (with onset prior to age 3) in at least one of the following areas: (1)   social interaction, (2) language as used in social communication, or (3)   symbolic or imaginative play. The disturbance is not better accounted for by   Rett's Disorder or Childhood Disintegrative Disorder. Further, for a   diagnosis, a total of six or more items from A, B and C (below), and at least   two from A and one each from B and C must be present. See   "Autism--Diagnositc Criteria" A, B and C below.

Autism--Diagnostic Criteria "A"

A. Qualitative impairments in reciprocal social interaction: Marked   impairment in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviours such as eye-to-eye   gaze, facial expression, body posture, and gestures to regulate social   interaction. Failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to   developmental level. Lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment,   interest, or achievements with others. Lack of social or emotional   reciprocity.

Autism--Diagnostic Criteria "B"

B. Qualitative impairments in communication: A delay in, or total lack   of, the development of spoken language (not accompanied by an attempt to   compensate through alternative modes of communication such as gesture or   mime). Marked impairment in the ability to initiate or sustain a conversation   with others despite adequate speech. Stereotyped and repetitive use of   language or idiosyncratic language. Lack of varied spontaneous make-believe   play or social imitative play appropriate to developmental level.

Autism--Diagnostic Criteria "C"

Restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behaviour,   interest, or activity, encompassing preoccupation with one or more stereotyped   and restricted patterns of interest, abnormal either in intensity or focus.   An apparently compulsive adherence to specific non-functional routines or   rituals. Stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms (e.g., hand or finger   flapping or twisting, complex whole body movements). Persistent preoccupation   with parts of objects.

Autistic Spectrum Disorders

May also be referred to as pervasive developmental disorders. Autistic   spectrum disorders include Asperger syndrome, autism, and pervasive   developmental disorders--not otherwise specified. They are neurological in   origin and symptoms appear in the first few years of life. The disorders   share a set of behavioural characteristics, but each child/adult shows   symptoms and characteristics very differently. Autism is referred to as a   spectrum disorder to signify these differences among those sharing a common   diagnosis.

Behaviour Management Plan

A behavioural management plan tries to prevent maladaptive behaviours,   teaches socially acceptable behaviours to take the place of unpleasant behaviours,   and creates a crisis intervention plan.

Behavioural Therapist

The Behavioural Therapist seeks to effect positive and lasting change   by working with the client to modify their maladaptive thoughts and/or behaviours.

California Speech and Hearing Association

The State of California's professional, scientific, and credentialing   association for audiologists, speech-language pathologists, and speech,   language, and hearing scientists.

Clinical Fellowship Year (CFY)

An important transitional phase between supervised graduate-level practicum   and the independent delivery of services. It is designed to foster the   continued growth and integration of the knowledge, skills, and tasks of   clinical practice in speech-language pathology consistent with ASHA's current   scope of practice. The CFY lasts a continuous 9 months while maintaining   full-time employment (30+ hours a week).


a. The exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech,   signals, writing, or behaviour. b. Interpersonal rapport. c. communications   (used with a sing. or pl. verb). The art and technique of using words   effectively and with grace in imparting one's ideas.


a. Existing at or before birth. b. Acquired at birth or during   uterine. Developmental, as a result of either hereditary or environmental   influences.

Constructive Play

"Manipulation of objects for the purpose of constructing or   creating something (Rubin, 1984). Children use materials to achieve a   specific goal in mind that requires transformation of objects into a new configuration.   Usually emerges around two years of age and predominates from age three on.

Cooperative Play

When children plan, assign roles and play together it is referred to   as cooperative play. Cooperative play is goal-oriented and children play in   an organized manner toward a common end. Emerges around 36 to 48 months of   age and continues through the school years.


A deficiency or impairment in mental or physical functioning.


To perform below expected norms according to chronological age or   grade level.

Developmental Disability

Developmental Disabilities in infants and toddlers are displayed as   significant differences between expected level of development for age and   current level of functioning. Children with developmental disabilities are   those who have a delay in one or more of the following areas: cognitive   development; physical and motor development, including vision and hearing;   communication development; social or emotional development; or adaptive   development.

Developmental Language Disorder

Children who do not develop language skills appropriately or according   to language norms are language delayed or disordered.

Developmental Speech Disorder

Children who do not develop speech production skills appropriately or   according to normative data are speech delayed or disordered.


a. The act or process of identifying or determining the nature and   cause of a disease or injury through evaluation of patient history,   examination, and review of other significant data. b. The opinion derived   from such an evaluation.


The functional consequence of impairment

Discrete Trial Training

Discrete trial training (DTT) is a method of behavioural intervention.   DTT programs generally involve several hours of direct one-on-one instruction   per day over many months or years and teach specific skills in an intensive   manner. The discrete trial method has four distinct parts (according to   Anderson et al, 1996): (1) the trainer's presentation, (2) the child's   response, (3) the consequence, (4) a short pause between the consequence and   the next instruction (between interval trials). In general, DTT programs   target skills that are broken down into finite, discrete tasks. The behavioural   therapist typically uses repetition, feedback, and positive reinforcers to   help the child master small tasks. Once mastered, basic skills are used as   building blocks to develop more complex abilities. Behavioural excesses such   as tantrums, aggression, and repetitive behaviours, may also be addressed.   Not all programs using DTT follow the same program sequences or curriculum.


An ailment or condition that affects the function of mind or body:

Down Syndrome

A congenital disorder, caused by the presence of an extra critical   portion of the 21st chromosome in all, or some, of one's cells. This   additional genetic material changes the developmental course, causing the   characteristics associated with the syndrome. Those affected usually have   mild to moderate mental retardation


Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder that is due to a paralysis,   weakness, altered muscle tone or incoordination of the speech muscles. Speech   is slow, weak, imprecise or uncoordinated. Voice and breathing for speech may   also be affected.


A disorder/condition that affects an individual's ability to swallow.


Impairment of speech and verbal comprehension; term often used when   associated with stroke or brain injury.

Early Intervention

Early intervention applies to children prior to school age who are   discovered to have or be at risk of developing a handicapping condition or   other special need that may affect their development. Early intervention consists   of the provision of services for such children and their families for the   purpose of lessening the effects of the condition. Early intervention can be   remedial or preventive in nature--remediating existing developmental problems   or preventing their occurrence.

Educational Model

Therapy focuses on intervention to improve the child's ability to   learn and function in the school environment.

Educational Therapist

A professional who uses educational and therapeutic approaches in   working with clients of all ages with learning problems and learning   disabilities. Educational Therapists perform professional work which requires   applying the concepts, principles, and practices of education and   rehabilitation therapy.

Emotionally Disturbed

A disturbance which can be characterized by: an inability to build or   maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships; inappropriate types of behaviour   or feelings under normal circumstances; general pervasive mood of unhappiness   or depression; or a tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated   with personal or school problems. If frequently affects the ability to learn.


An assessment of an individual's abilities (i.e., speech and language,   motoric, cognitive, etc.) in order to determine their strengths and   weaknesses, and to see whether or not deficits are significant for   intervention. It is usually the first thing that takes place to get a child   qualified for service. The purpose is most often eligibility for a   service(s).

Floor Play

Therapy where skills such as speech, language and play are developed   through floor-based play involving toys, games, activities, etc.

Fragile X Syndrome

A genetic condition caused by a spontaneous partial break in the long   arm of the X chromosome. Measurement of testes in males and a chromosome   analysis helps confirm the diagnosis. There are often very few outward signs   of Fragile X syndrome. The spectrum of the syndrome ranges from normal   development to developmental delay, learning disabilities, mild-severe   intellectural disability, autistic-like behaviour and attentional problems.   The majority of children are mildy to moderately affected.

Functional Play

May also be a term used for "relational play" (seen between   9-24 months) denoting use of objects in play for the purposes for which they   were intended, e.g., using simple objects correctly, combining related   objects (man in car), and making objects do what they are made to do.


The process (therapy) to make suitable for specific use


The loss or limitation of opportunities to take part in the life of   the community on an equal level with others.

Hard of Hearing

Broad term covering individuals with hearing loss ranging from mild to   profound (deaf).

Health Management Organization

A corporation financed by insurance premiums whose members, physicians   and professional staff provide curative and preventive medicine within   certain financial, geographic, and professional limits to enrolled volunteer   members and their families.

Hearing Impaired

Broad term covering individuals with hearing loss ranging from mild to   profound (deaf).

High Functioning Autism

Characteristics that are typically seen in individuals with "high   functional autism" may include some of the following: average or above   average IQ, superior vocabulary skills, higher rate of unusual obsessions,   motor deficits (clumsiness), less impaired on "theory of mind"   tests, and speech is less commonly delayed.


A syndrome observed in children who have the following   characteristics: an ability to read words, far above what would be expected   at their chronological age, frequently an intense and early fascination with   letters or numbers, significant difficulty in understanding/processing verbal   language, abnormal social skills, and deficits in social/pragmatic   communication abilities. Precocious reading abilities are developed   spontaneously before the age of five; they are not taught.

ICD Code

A universal billing system that utilizes a numeric format (codes) that   differ as related to specific diagnosis. ICD stands for International   Classification of Diseases.


An abnormality of structure or function

Individual Education Plan (IEP)

A written plan for every student receiving special education services   within the public school system. The plan contains information such as the   student's special learning needs and the specific special education services   required by the student.

Infantile Autism

A spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by deficits in   social interaction and communication, and unusual and repetitive behaviour.   Typically occurs within the first three years of life. Some, but not all   people with autism, are non-verbal. Please see Autism in this glossary for   more information.

Insurance Coverage

a. Coverage by a contract binding a party to indemnify another against   specified loss/conditions in return for premiums paid. b. The sum or rate for   which such a contract insures something. c. The periodic premium paid for   this coverage.

Intelligence Quotient

The ratio of tested mental age to chronological age, usually expressed   as a quotient multiplied by 100.

Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS)

A disorder with seizures starting in childhood in which the patient   loses skills, such as speech, and develops behaviour characteristic of   autism.


The use by human beings of voice sounds, and often written symbols   representing these sounds, in organized combinations and patterns in order to   express and communicate thoughts and feelings. Language also includes other   forms of communication as well, e.g., use of symbols, gesture, and sign.

Language Based Learning Disability

Disabilities which interfere with age-appropriate reading, spelling,   and/or writing. Please see "Learning Disabilities" for a broader   definition of learning disabiity. A language based learning disability is   specific to language processing and use.

Language Comprehension

Also called Receptive Language. A person's ability to understand and   process language at the sound, word, phrase, sentence, multi-sentence and   conversational levels. Involves understanding of vocabulary, concepts,   grammar (morphology and syntax), and higher level language associated with   processing more abstract language (e.g., inferences, idioms, verbal problem   solving and abstract reasoning). Also involves the ability to retain   linguistic information for the purpose of understanding and interpretation.   Difficulties with receptive language can interfere with academic or   occupational achievement or with social communication

Learning Disabilities

Disabilities affecting the manner one takes in information, retains   it, and expresses the knowledge and understanding they have. Learning   disabilities is a general term for a heterogeneous group of disorders   manifested by significant difficulties in acquistion and use of listening,   speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities. They are   intrinsic to the individual, presumed to be due to central nervous system   dysfunction, and may occur across the life span. Problems in self-regulatory behaviours,   social perception, and social interaction may exist with learning   disabilities but do not by themselves constitute a learning disability.   Though learning disabilities may occur concomitantly with other handicapping   conditions or with extrinsic influences, they are not the result of those   conditions or influences (National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities,   1981, revised 1988). See "Learning Disabilities--Continued" for   other frequent characteristics.

Learning Disabilities--Continued

Frequent characteristics of learning disabilities include, but are not   limited to, a marked discrepancy between achievement and potential with   uneven abilities within an individual, average to above average intellectual   functioning, processing deficits (e.g., auditory and/or visual perceptual   problems), and long/short term auditory and/or visual memory deficits.

Medical Model

Therapy focuses on treatment to cure or alleviate specific underlying   medical conditions.

Mental retardation

Impaired intellectual ability that is equivalent to or less than an IQ   of approximately 70 with onset before age 18, and presenting with concurrent   impairments in adaptive functioning. The condidtion is manifested typically   by abnormal development, learning difficulties, and problems in social   adjustment

Multidisciplinary Team

A group or team of disciplines that work, assess, report results,   and/or deliver treatment to clients.

Non-Public School Agency (NPA)

An approved, but unrelated, agency that provides a service to meet the   needs/demands of a public school system.

Nonverbal Learning Disability

A specific pattern of neuropsychological assets and deficits that   eventuates in the following: a specific pattern of relative assets and   deficits in academic (well-developed single-word reading and spelling   relative to mechanical arithmetic) and social (e.g., more efficient use of   verbal than nonverbal information in social situations) learning; specific,   developmentally dependent patterns of psychosocial functioning.

Noonan's Syndrome

"A grouping of specific abnormalities affecting both males and   females, both sporadic in appearance but also reflecting a hereditary   component (thought to be autosomal dominant). Symptoms may include webbed   neck, sternum abnormalities (pectus excavatum, occasionally pectus   carinatum), sagging eyelids (ptosis), wide-set eyes (hypertelorism), low-set   ears
  abnormally shaped ears, undescended testicles, delayed puberty, mental   retardation, short stature, and small penis."

Occupational Therapist

Provides evaluation and treatment of daily living skills for   individuals with disabilities. Therapy emphasizes remediation of or   compensation for perceptual, sensory, visual-motor, fine-motor, and self-care   deficits.

Oral Motor

Referring to the oral motor structures for speech, e.g., lips, tongue,   teeth, palate, larynx, and so forth.

Otitis Media

Inflammation of the middle ear, occurring commonly in children as a   result of infection and often causing pain and temporary hearing loss.

Parallel Play

The child plays near or beside another child using some or all of the   same/similar materials as the other child without trying to modify or   influence the other child and being mainly concerned with toy materials, not   with relating to the other child. Predominates between 24-30 months.


One who engages in the scientific study of the nature of disease and   its causes, processes, development, and consequences.


When children display similar behaviours to but do not meet the   criteria for autistic disorder, they may receive a diagnosis of Pervasive   Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD/NOS). It is a   neurological disorder that affects such areas as a child's ability to   communicate, understand language, play, and relate to others.

Phonological Awareness / Processing

Phonological awareness is a person's explicit knowledge of the sound   segments (phonemes) which comprise words. Phonological processing skills   include the ability to recognize and produce rhyming words or patterns of   alliteration, segmenting or breaking apart words into syllables/sounds,   identify where a specific sound occurs in a word, and blend sounds into   words. Problems in these areas indicate a weakness in phonological   processing/awareness. Other symptoms seen with a phonological processing   deficit are difficulty with rapid-naming tasks and incorrect repetition of   multisyllabic words.

Phonological Disorder

A disorder characterized by failure to use speech sounds that are   appropriate for the individual's age and dialect. Symptoms typically include   but are not limited to failure in sound production and use, substitutions of   one sound for another, and omissions of sounds. The pattern of errors may   indicate use of inappropriate phonological processes/rules for the child's   age, e.g., final consonant deletion, or omission of final consonants in words   when speaking.

Physical Therapist

Provides assessment and treatment for disorders related to physical   and musculoskeletal injuries. Therapy emphasizes remediation of or   compensation for mobility, gait, muscle strength, and postural deficits.


After the development of speech.


Before the development of speech.


A physician who specializes in psychiatry. (MD)


The branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and   prevention of mental and emotional disorders.


A person trained and educated to perform psychological research,   testing, and therapy. Holds a Master's degree or ph.D in the field of   psychology. Since not an MD, they may not prescribe medications.

Regional Centres

The Centres shall function as a leader and advocate in promoting the   continuing entitlement of citizens with developmental disabilities to all   services that enable full community inclusion. The Association shall also   participate in the development of public legislative policy and serve as a   focal point for communication, education, training and prevention services.


To restore to good health or useful life, as through therapy and   education.


The act or process of correcting a fault or deficiency

Representational Play

Pretend play which emerges when a child begins to use familiar objects   in appropriate ways to represent their world (i.e. pushing a toy lawn mower   over the grass). Begins to occur between 12- to 21-months of age.

Resource Specialist

Typically, a Resource Specialist provides support, pertinent   information, consultant services, and direct intervention to individuals,   their family, and staff members regarding educational/learning needs and   issues. Frequently found within the public school setting.

Sensory Integration

The process of the brain organizing and interpreting sensory   information.

Sensory Integration Dysfunction

Sensory integration dysfunction is the inability to process certain   information received through the senses.

Social Impairment

Verbal and/or nonverbal difficulties in socializing and relating with   peers.

Sociodramatic Play

Play involving acting out scripts, scenes, etc. (i.e., from a favorite   cartoon or book or from daily life). Children take/assume roles using   themselves and/or characters (dolls, figures) as they interact together on   common themes. A faciliator may assist ideas for characters, settings or   props and use the children's ideas for a story. Typically occurs between 3 -   4 years of age. As a child matures, themes, sequences, plans, problem   solving, characters and so forth become more rich and they begin to organize   other children for role play with independence (around 5 years of age).

Solitary Play

The child plays alone with toys that are different from those used by   the children within speaking distance and makes no effort to interact with   other children. The child plays alone without concern for the activties of   those around him/her. Seen by 15-18 mos up through 2 yrs.

Special Education

Resources, services, classes, etc. for students with special   educational needs. The public school system is involved with the   identification of students with special needs, ages three on up. They provide   assessment and, if appropriate, intervention services for those who qualify.   Specific procedures are involved in assessment and intervention. If   identified with special needs, an Individualized Educational Plan (IEP) is   written for the child to address learning needs.


a. The faculty or act of speaking. b. The faculty or act of expressing   or describing thoughts, feelings, or perceptions by the articulation of   words.

Speech Pathology

The study of speech and language defects and disorders

Speech-Language Pathologist

A professionals who is educated to assess speech and language   development, treat language and speech disorders, and help people with   swallowing disorders. Requires at least a Master's Degree, state, and   national credentials.


A group of brain disorders involving loss of brain functions that   occur when the blood supply to any part of the brain is interrupted.


Excessive repetition of parts of words, involutary prolongation of   sounds in words, and/or struggle to "get words out." A certain   amount of dysfluent speech may be normal as a child learns to talk, and   determination of stuttering is based on such information as the type, amount,   and severity of the dysfluencies, the amount of struggle and tension during   speech, and the length of time a child has been dysfluent. Stuttering tends to   run in families. It is seen more in males than females. There is evidence   that stuttering may be associated with some neurological deficits. There can   also be a strong psychological component. Stuttering may persist into   adulthood. Early intervention is important.

Symbolic Play

Symbolic, or dramatic, play is when children begin to substitute one   object for another. For example, using a hairbrush to represent a microphone.   The child may pretend to do something (with or without the object present or with   an object representing another object) or be someone. They may also pretend   through other inanimate objects (e.g., has a doll pretend to feed another   doll). Dramatic play with sequence of pretend acts predominates after 2 years   of age.

Table Top Play

Organized play that occurs at a table or related location. For example   a board game, cards, etc.

Theory of Mind

A "Theory of Mind" (often abbreviated as TOM) is a specific   cognitive ability to understand others as intentional agents, that is, to   interpret their minds in terms of theoretical concepts of intentional states   such as beliefs and desires. It has been commonplace in philosophy (see   Davidson 1984; Dennett 1987) to see this ability as intrinsically dependent   upon our linguistic abilities. After all, language provides us a   representational medium for meaning and intentionality : thanks to language   we are able to describe other people’s and our own actions in an intentional   way as in : "Ralph believes that Mary intends him to persuade George   that p". According to this view, the intentionality of natural language,   that is, its suitability for expressing meanings and thoughts, is the key for   understanding the intentionality of our theory of mind.


One who specializes in the provision of a particular therapy.


Treatment of illness, disability, or delay.

Tourette's Syndrome

A severe neurological disorder characterized by multiple facial and   other body tics, usually beginning in childhood or adolescence and often accompanied   by grunts and compulsive utterances, for example, interjections and   obscenities. Also called Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

Tramatic Brain Injury

An acute assault/injury on the brain that can range from mild to   severe.

Treatment Plan

An organized course of action, involving goals/objectives and methods   for treatment of a patient.


A person charged with the instruction and guidance of another. Used to   describe one who assists another with homework and teaches academic subjects   to pupils who require individual instruction. They do not test, remediate or   deal with the social-emotional problems typically associated with learning   disability. They may not have specialized training in the field of learning   disabilities.

Velopharyngeal Dysfunction

Velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) is also known as velopharyngeal   dysfunction (VPD) or even velopharyngeal incompetence (VPI). The most common   cause of velopharyngeal insufficiency is a history of cleft palate or   submucous cleft. However, other causes include a short velum, poor pharyngeal   wall movement, cranial base anomalies, a history of adenoidectomy, surgery   for midface advancement, enlarged tonsils, and irregular adenoids. Neuromotor   disorders can cause poor velopharyngeal movement, resulting in velopharyngeal   dysfunction. Frequently, hypernasality is perceived.

Verbal Dyspraxia

Motor speech disorder where the speaker shows reduced efficiency in   accomplishing the oral postures necessary for phoneme production and the   sequences of those postures for production of syllables, words, sentences,   and/or conversation. The speaker may show groping behaviours and struggle to   initiate, organize and carrythrough speech movement. It is a motor planning   problem for speech. Generally, unlike dysarthria, there is nothing wrong with   the speech muscles themselves.

Verbal Expression

Also called Expressive Language. Refers to a person's ability to   express themselves at the word, phrase, sentence, multi-sentence and   conversational levels. Includes ability to use age appropriate vocabulary,   concepts and grammar to communicate needs, wants, desires, thoughts, and   ideas. Verbal expression refers to the use of oral language for   communication. However, expressive language includes the use of alternative   or augmentative communication to include gestures, sign language, and simple   to complex augmentative devices (for example, picture boards, alphabet   boards, computerized systems with or without voice). Difficulties with   expressive language can interfere with academic or occupational achievement   or with social communication

Voice Disturbance

In general, there are five categories that characterize the underlying   causes of the majority of voice disorders; in decreasing order of frequency,   these are: 1.Infectious and inflammatory conditions 2.Vocal misuse and abuse   syndromes 3.Benign and malignant growths 4.Neuromuscular diseases   5.Psychogenic conditions. It is common for multiple factors to be involved in   the development of a voice disorder. An example is a patient with Reinke's   edema, a term used to describe very swollen vocal cords. These patients almost   always are heavy, long-term smokers, most of whom have gastroesophageal   reflux as well. Another example of a voice issue is a patient with vocal   nodules. This condition is always associated with signs of increased   laryngeal muscle tension. Since voice disorders are often multifactorial,   appropriate diagnosis and treatment in each case depends upon identification   and correction of all of the underlying factors.

Additional information